Hashimoto’s disease is diagnosed by detection of swelling of the entire thyroid gland (diffuse goiter) and autoantibodies against the thyroid gland. In addition, thyroid hormone levels are measured to determine whether treatment is required.
- (1) Thyroid function:
- Levels of thyroid hormones (FT3 and FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the bloodstream are measured. Normal or reduced thyroid function is assessed based on the relative levels.
- (2) Antithyroid antibody test:
- This is a test for the presence or absence of autoantibodies that attack the thyroid. The antibodies are anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb).
- (3) Abnormalities general blood screenings:
- Persistence of low thyroid hormone levels may increase blood cholesterol levels.
Ultrasonography is performed to detect thyroid swelling and the presence of tumors.
Aspiration biopsy cytology
Aspiration biopsy cytology is procedure in which a small sample of thyroid tissue is taken using a thin hollow needle. This test is rarely used to diagnose Hashimoto’s disease. However, it may be performed if the disease is associated with malignant lymphoma or other tumors.